~8-9th Century BC
The idea that the Earth
is in motion around the Sun is proposed in Sanskrit texts in
ancient India. It is the first recorded evidence of
4th Century BC
proposes that the apparent daily motion of stars is created by
the rotation of the Earth.
3rd Century BC
astronomer Aristarchus of Samos advances heliocentrism in a
now lost book. The ideas of Aristarchus, however, were
described in a book by the great philosopher and scientist
Archimedes called The Sand Reckoner.
2nd Century BC
astronomer Seleucus of Seleucia proves support for the
heliocentric theory by his study of ocean tides.
Ptolemy publishes the Almagest, a scientific
treatise which proposes a geocentric, or Earth-Centered model
of planetary motion. The Geocentric Model (also
called that Ptolemaic Model) remained the accepted
model for over a thousand years in the Western world.
astronomer Ja'far ibn Muhammad Abu Ma'shar al-Balkhi develops
a model of planetary motion which proposes that all planets
revolve around the Sun.
Copernicus publishes De revolutionibus orbium
coelestium (English: On the Revolutions of the Heavenly
Spheres). It is the first scientific treatise to
provide detailed scientific support for heliocentrism.
Kepler discovers the three laws of planetary motion.
His work would provide the scientific basis for a broad
acceptance of the heliocentric model later in the century.
Galilei is sentenced to prison by the Inquisition
on the charge of heresy for advancing the Copernican model of
planetary motion in his book,
Dialogue Concerning the Two Chief World Systems.
Newton publishes Principia Mathematica. This
highly influential work describes the physical laws that
govern the motions of planets.
Benedict XIV suspends the Catholic Church ban on works that
support the heliocentric model.